Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8
This statement defines and describes principles of developmentally
appropriate practice in early childhood programs for administrators, teachers,
parents, policymakers, and others who make decisions about the care and
education of young children. An early childhood program is any group program in
a center, school, or other facility that serves children from birth through age
8. Early childhood programs include child care centers, family child care homes,
private and public preschools, kindergartens, and primary-grade schools.
The early childhood profession is responsible for establishing and promoting
standards of high-quality, professional practice in early childhood programs.
These standards must reflect current knowledge and shared beliefs about what
constitutes high-quality, developmentally appropriate early childhood education
in the context within which services are delivered.
This position paper is organized into several components, which include the following:
- a description of the current context in which early childhood programs operate;
- a description of the rationale and need for NAEYC's position statement
- a statement of NAEYC's commitment to children;
- the statement of the position and definition of developmentally appropriate practice;
- a summary of the principles of child development and learning and the theoretical perspectives that inform decisions about early childhood practice;
- guidelines for making decisions about developmentally appropriate practices
that address the following integrated components of early childhood practice:
creating a caring community of learners, teaching to enhance children's learning
and development, constructing appropriate curriculum, assessing children's
learning and development, and establishing reciprocal relationships with families;
- a challenge to the field to move from either/or to both/and thinking; and
- recommendations for policies necessary to ensure developmentally appropriate practices for all children.
This statement is designed to be used in conjunction with NAEYC's "Criteria
for High Quality Early Childhood Programs," the standards for accreditation
by the National Academy of Early Childhood Programs (NAEYC 1991), and with "Guidelines
for Appropriate Curriculum Content and Assessment in Programs Serving Children
Ages 3 through 8" (NAEYC & NAECS/SDE 1992; Bredekamp & Rosegrant
The current context of early childhood programs
The early childhood knowledge base has expanded considerably in recent
years, affirming some of the profession's cherished beliefs about good practice
and challenging others. In addition to gaining new knowledge, early childhood
programs have experienced several important changes in recent years. The number
of programs continues to increase not only in response to the growing demand for
out-of-home child care but also in recognition of the critical importance of
educational experiences during the early years (Willer et al. 1991; NCES 1993).
For example, in the late 1980s Head Start embarked on the largest expansion in
its history, continuing this expansion into the 1990s with significant new
services for families with infants and toddlers. The National Education Goals
Panel established as an objective of Goal 1 that by the year 2000 all children
will have access to high-quality, developmentally appropriate preschool programs
(NEGP 1991). Welfare reform portends a greatly increased demand for child care
services for even the youngest children from very-low-income families.
Some characteristics of early childhood programs have also changed in recent
years. Increasingly, programs serve children and families from diverse cultural
and linguistic backgrounds, requiring that all programs demonstrate
understanding of and responsiveness to cultural and linguistic diversity.
Because culture and language are critical components of children's development,
practices cannot be developmentally appropriate unless they are responsive to
cultural and linguistic diversity.
The Americans with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act now require that all early childhood programs make reasonable
accommodations to provide access for children with disabilities or developmental
delays (DEC/CEC & NAEYC 1993). This legal right reflects the growing
consensus that young children with disabilities are best served in the same
community settings where their typically developing peers are found (DEC/CEC 1994).
The trend toward full inclusion of children with disabilities must be
reflected in descriptions of recommended practices, and considerable work has
been done toward converging the perspectives of early childhood and early
childhood special education (Carta et al. 1991; Mallory 1992, 1994; Wolery,
Strain, & Bailey 1992; Bredekamp 1993b; DEC Task Force 1993; Mallory &
New 1994b; Wolery & Wilbers 1994).
Other important program characteristics include age of children and length
of program day. Children are now enrolled in programs at younger ages, many from
infancy. The length of the program day for all ages of children has been
extended in response to the need for extended hours of care for employed
families. Similarly, program sponsorship has become more diverse. The public
schools in the majority of states now provide prekindergarten programs, some for
children as young as 3, and many offer before- and after-school child care
(Mitchell, Seligson, & Marx 1989; Seppanen, Kaplan deVries, & Seligson
1993; Adams & Sandfort 1994).
Corporate America has become a more visible sponsor of child care programs,
with several key corporations leading the way in promoting high quality (for
example, IBM, AT&T, and the American Business Collaboration). Family child
care homes have become an increasingly visible sector of the child care
community, with greater emphasis on professional development and the National
Association for Family Child Care taking the lead in establishing an
accreditation system for high-quality family child care (Hollestelle 1993; Cohen
& Modigliani 1994; Galinsky et al. 1994). Many different settings in this
country provide services to young children, and it is legitimate -- even
beneficial -- for these settings to vary in certain ways. However, since it is
vital to meet children's learning and developmental needs wherever they are
served, high standards of quality should apply to all settings.
The context in which early childhood programs operate today is also
characterized by ongoing debates about how best to teach young children and
discussions about what sort of practice is most likely to contribute to their
development and learning. Perhaps the most important contribution of NAEYC's
1987 position statement on developmentally appropriate practice (Bredekamp 1987)
was that it created an opportunity for increased conversation within and outside
the early childhood field about practices. In revising the position statement,
NAEYC's goal is not only to improve the quality of current early childhood
practice but also to continue to encourage the kind of questioning and debate
among early childhood professionals that are necessary for the continued growth
of professional knowledge in the field. A related goal is to express NAEYC's
position more clearly so that energy is not wasted in unproductive debate about
apparent rather than real differences of opinion.
Rationale for the position statement
The increased demand for early childhood education services is partly due to
the increased recognition of the crucial importance of experiences during the
earliest years of life. Children's experiences during early childhood not only
influence their later functioning in school but can have effects throughout
life. For example, current research demonstrates the early and lasting effects
of children's environments and experiences on brain development and cognition
(Chugani, Phelps, & Mazziotta 1987; Caine & Caine 1991; Kuhl 1994).
Studies show that, "From infancy through about age 10, brain cells not only
form most of the connections they will maintain throughout life but during this
time they retain their greatest malleability" (Dana Alliance for Brain
Initiatives 1996, 7).
Positive, supportive relationships, important during the earliest years of
life, appear essential not only for cognitive development but also for healthy
emotional development and social attachment (Bowlby 1969; Stern 1985). The
preschool years are an optimum time for development of fundamental motor skills
(Gallahue 1993), language development (Dyson & Genishi 1993), and other key
foundational aspects of development that have lifelong implications.
Recognition of the importance of the early years has heightened interest and
support for early childhood education programs. A number of studies
demonstrating long-term, positive consequences of participation in high-quality
early childhood programs for children from low-income families influenced the
expansion of Head Start and public school prekindergarten (Lazar &
Darlington 1982; Lee, Brooks-Gunn, & Schuur 1988; Schweinhart, Barnes, &
Weikart 1993; Campbell & Ramey 1995). Several decades of research clearly
demonstrate that high-quality, developmentally appropriate early childhood
programs produce short- and long-term positive effects on children's cognitive
and social development (Barnett 1995).
From a thorough review of the research on the long-term effects of early
childhood education programs, Barnett concludes that "across all studies,
the findings were relatively uniform and constitute overwhelming evidence that
early childhood care and education can produce sizeable improvements in school
success" (1995, 40). Children from low-income families who participated in
high-quality preschool programs were significantly less likely to have been
assigned to special education, retained in grade, engaged in crime, or to have
dropped out of school. The longitudinal studies, in general, suggest positive
consequences for programs that used an approach consistent with principles of
developmentally appropriate practice (Lazar & Darlington 1982;
Berreuta-Clement et al. 1984; Miller & Bizzell 1984; Schwein-hart, Weikart, &
Larner 1986; Schweinhart, Barnes, & Weikart 1993; Frede 1995; Schweinhart &
Research on the long-term effects of early childhood programs indicates that
children who attend good-quality child care programs, even at very young ages,
demonstrate positive outcomes, and children who attend poor-quality programs
show negative effects (Vandell & Powers 1983; Phillips, McCart-ney, &
Scarr 1987; Fields et al. 1988; Vandell, Henderson, & Wilson 1988; Arnett
1989; Vandell & Corasanti 1990; Burchinal et al. 1996). Specifically,
children who experience high-quality, stable child care engage in more complex
play, demonstrate more secure attachments to adults and other children, and
score higher on measures of thinking ability and language development.
High-quality child care can predict academic success, adjustment to school, and
reduced behavioral problems for children in first grade (Howes 1988).
While the potential positive effects of high-quality child care are well
documented, several large-scale evaluations of child care find that high-quality
experiences are not the norm (Whitebook, Howes, & Phillips 1989; Howes,
Phillips, & Whitebook 1992; Layzer, Goodson, & Moss 1993; Galinsky et
al. 1994; Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team 1995). Each of these
studies, which included observations of child care and preschool quality in
several states, found that good quality that supports children's health and
social and cognitive development is being provided in only about 15% of programs.
Of even greater concern was the large percentage of classrooms and family
child care homes that were rated "barely adequate" or "inadequate"
for quality. From 12 to 20% of the children were in settings that were
considered dangerous to their health and safety and harmful to their social and
cognitive development. An alarming number of infants and toddlers (35 to 40%)
were found to be in unsafe settings (Cost, Quality, & Child Outcomes Study Team 1995).
Experiences during the earliest years of formal schooling are also
formative. Studies demonstrate that children's success or failure during the
first years of school often predicts the course of later schooling (Alexander &
Entwisle 1988; Slavin, Karweit, & Madden 1989). A growing body of research
indicates that more developmentally appropriate teaching in preschool and
kindergarten predicts greater success in the early grades (Frede & Barnett
1992; Marcon 1992; Charlesworth et al. 1993).
As with preschool and child care, the observed quality of children's early
schooling is uneven (Durkin 1987, 1990; Hiebert & Papierz 1990; Bryant,
Clifford, & Peisner 1991; Carnegie Task Force 1996). For instance, in a
statewide observational study of kindergarten classrooms, Durkin (1987) found
that despite assessment results indicating considerable individual variation in
children's literacy skills, which would call for various teaching strategies as
well as individual and small-group work, teachers relied on one instructional
strategy -- whole-group, phonics instruction -- and judged children who did
not learn well with this one method as unready for first grade. Currently, too
many children -- especially children from low-income families and some
minority groups -- experience school failure, are retained in grade, get
assigned to special education, and eventually drop out of school (Natriello,
McDill, & Pallas 1990; Legters & Slavin 1992).
Results such as these indicate that while early childhood programs have the
potential for producing positive and lasting effects on children, this potential
will not be achieved unless more attention is paid to ensuring that all programs
meet the highest standards of quality. As the number and type of early childhood
programs increase, the need increases for a shared vision and agreed-upon
standards of professional practice.
NAEYC's commitment to children
It is important to acknowledge at the outset the core values that
undergird all of NAEYC's work. As stated in NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct,
standards of professional practice in early childhood programs are based on
commitment to certain fundamental values that are deeply rooted in the history
of the early childhood field:
- appreciating childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life
cycle [and valuing the quality of children's lives in the present, not just as preparation for the future];
- basing our work with children on knowledge of child development [and learning];
- appreciating and supporting the close ties between the child and family;
- recognizing that children are best understood in the context of family, culture, and society;
- respecting the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague); and
- helping children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust, respect, and positive regard. (Feeney & Kipnis 1992, 3)
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